200 word response to this post Question: What does the criminal justice system

200 word response to this post Question: What does the criminal justice system do to help victims and family member survivors cope with the psychological effects that follow an incident? The most common effects on victims and family member survivors is posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. Other psychological effects can include behavioral changes, emotional reactions (rage, guilt, blame, fear, etc), anxiety, depression, and more (Daigle & Muftic, 2019). These psychological effects can lead to drug and alcohol use, as well as engagement in risky behaviors. After reading the textbook, we know that alcohol use, participation in a risky lifestyle/routine activities, and those who suffer from psychological distress are more likely to become victimes. We also know that all these factors have been linked to recurring victimization and that near repeats are likely to occur within 2 weeks of the initial incident. If the criminal justice system/law enforcement is aware that repeat victimization is likely to occur within such a close proximity, they should be able to introduce effective protocol measures to aid in prevention efforts. Comment: After reading the assignment chapters for this week, I now feel as if I have a better understanding of what victimization is and the extent to which it goes. For example, there are many types of victimization such as recurring and repeat victimization, revictimization, polyvictimization, and near-repeat victimization. As someone who is a fan of crime shows like Criminal Minds and Law&Order, the reading was able to better provide me with clarity on the difference between types of criminal homicide like first and second-degree murder, felony murder, and voluntary/involuntary manslaughter. Chapter 6 also introduced me to a new term, excusable homicide, which I have never heard of until reading. Also, another topic I was introduced to from the readings is ‘neurobiology’. Neurobiology is the study of understanding how the body responds to trauma and I found this interesting because everyone responds to situations differently. Connection: A lot of the topics discussed within these chapters stood out to me but the topic on whether repeat victimization is a problem and why it occurs stood out to me the most because I was able to make a connection to my own life. Though I have never personally been a victim of sexual assault, the readings only confirmed what I knew when it mentions how college women account for an amount of the sexual and violent incidents that occur on campus (Daigle & Muftic, 2019). As a young woman on a large college campus, I try to avoid anything that could ever put me at risk for such a traumatic event. For example, I try not to walk alone on campus during night hours, I never consume any drugs or alcohol, and I always keep a self-protective action on me such as pepper spray. Although I know that implementing these measures does not necessarily excuse me from being a target, it does give me a sense of control over my life and allows me to feel as if I would less likely become a victim. —————-
200 word response to this discussion post Question: What must be proved to win restitution in a civil litigation trail involving a victim of defamation? Defamation is the action of damaging the reputation of someone, either through libel or slander. Described in chapter 6 of the book, one can seek a civil litigation trail for emotional or physical harm. It is stated, “Liability must be proved by a fair preponderance of the evidence, not beyond a reasonable doubt, which is the standard of proof in the criminal justice system” (Victimology: A Comprehensive Approach pg. 111). It is noted that restitution can be awarded to compensate one for the loss of expenses or wages.
Comment: This chapter helped me to better understand the proceedings after one has fallen victim to a crime. I have also learned that it can be extremely hard to win a restitution or civil litigation trail, since there must be an abundant amount of proof. The book states, “Much like with restitution, however, the likelihood of the victim actually receiving the money awarded is tied to the offender being identified and the offender’s ability to pay” (Victimology: A Comprehensive Approach pg. 111). This goes to show that even if one were to win a restitution or civil litigation, there is still a chance they do not receive the money they are entitled to in the offender cannot pay it. I found this to be extremely shocking because one goes through the trouble of court, trail, and facing their offender and if they win there is a high possibility, they never receive the money they should.
Connection: The recent Johnny Depp V. Amber Heard trail sparked my interest in wanting to know more about the topic of restitution and litigation. In the trail, Johnny Depp is suing Amber Heard for defamation over a piece of writing she published in the Washington Post in which she states she is a survivor of domestic abuse. Due to this article being about Johnny Depp, he lost many wages, so he was able to sue for restitution of $50 million. This is also a civil litigation trail because the article wrote by Amber Heard causes him emotional damage. Overall, chapter 6 helped me to gain a little more perceptive on what the trail was about, and the charges being brought against Amber Heard. And, upon further research I found the answer to my question, in an article by Julia Jacobs it is said, “Each party has the burden of proving by the greater weight of the evidence that they had been defamed, and that there was clear and convincing evidence that the other side had acted with actual malice while defaming them” (New York Times

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