This is a peer review for this specific topic. Frost Bite: Frost bite is the re


This is a peer review for this specific topic.
Frost Bite:
Frost bite is the result of injury to the skin from exposure to cold weather or water. Temperature required for this type of injury is single digits Fahrenheit, and the colder it is the less exposure necessary to start experiencing symptoms. Frostbite is when the water in the skin freezes which can cause both visible and invisible damage to the skin depending on the extent of the injury and layers of the skin affected. Common areas that are affected are the fingers, ears and toes.
Symptoms of frostbite:
numbness
“pins and needles” in exposed area
hardening of the skin that has been exposed/affected
Redness
pale or waxy color/feel
swelling
blisters
Loss of coordination
pain when rewarming exposed skin/affected area
There are 3 stages of frostbite which are described below. For the purposes of the picture below the numbers correspond to the number of pictures in the schematic not necessarily the stages of frostbite.
1. Skin without damage
2. Frostnip: (this is technically state 1) mild version of frostbite that irritates the skin which causes a change in color, feeling of cold/numbness in the area – no permanent damage, considered the “warning stage”.
3. Superficial Frostbite: (Second stage) Skin feels warm, the water crystals in your skin are starting to freeze into ice crystals. Blisters may appear 12-36 hours following exposure. Skin may feel like a sunburn.
4. Deep frostbite: (3rd stage) The 3rd stage affects the skin down to the subcutaneous layer. Numbness can be normal, joints and muscles of affected area may present with decrease motor ability. Large blisters appear after rewarming, tissue turns black which is a result of the cells dying.
*Seek medical attention immediately for second and third states of frostbite!
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Treatment:
Time is critical when treating frostbite. Seeking medical attention is warranted at all stages for appropriate treatment, but if you are experiencing stage 2 or 3 symptoms seek professional help immediately. If you are experiencing stage 1 symptoms then the first most important step is to help increase body temperature which can be done by immersing the body part in lukewarm water. Of necessary dress the frostbitten areas in sterile bandages while keeping digits of the feet or hands separated. Drink plenty of water and test blood flow to the area. Seeking medical attention for any stages is warranted. Other treatment remedies may include oxygen therapy, tetanus booster, antibiotics and pain relievers.
Recovery/Prognosis:
Frostbite depending on the stage and severity of symptoms can have prolonged affects. It will depend on the temperature and length of exposure to determine the extent of the tissue damage. Second and third stages usually will have permanent tissue damage. Permanent symptoms include sensitivity to cold, numbness, damage to tendons, muscles and bones, arthritis, scars, changes in nail appearance or integrity, gangrene.
Link below is to an article with some addition photos of different stages of frostbite:
https://www.cyberderm.net/secure-uploads/attachments/ckobm0v1d002mr42bwljb5hq8-1-3-1-1-thermal-injury-frostbite-handford-2017-review.pdf.Links to an external site.
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15439-frostbiteLinks to an external site.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/frostbite/multimedia/img-20114490Links to an external site.


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